Polity- trend and analysis
It has been saying that India is one of the largest democracy in the world and without knowing about it how can one dream to become a part of it? Yes, you are in the right way and in this article we are going to discuss the trend, analysis, syllabus and sources of polity in UPSC.
In fact, polity plays a crucial role in the preparation of examination because most of the current affairs come from this section. Everyday there is something to listen in news related to our constitution, related to our political environment and related to our polity. This in itself states how much polity is important regarding current affairs as well.
Here is the graph representation which gives you the key idea about how questions of polity in preliminary vary each year:
By this graph, we can conclude that each year on an average 15-20 questions asked from this section means this portion covers 15-20% syllabus of prelims. And to qualify the exam it is necessary to focus on this area too.
Let’s begin this discussion with the syllabus of the exam. As we all know, UPSC conducts in three stages: Preliminary, Mains and Interview and each section have their own syllabus.
Syllabus of UPSC
1. Preliminary Exam
– Indian polity and governance – Constitution
– Political system
– Panchayati Raj Public Policy, Rights Issues etc. The syllabus for the preliminary examination is epigrammatic.
Area to focus on:
3. Constitution of India
4. Union and its Territory (Article 1-4)
5. Citizenship (Article 5-11)
6. Fundamental Rights (FR) (Article 12-35)
7. Fundamental Duties(FD) (Article 51A)
8. Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) (Article 36-51 and Article 368)
9. Union (Article 52-73)
10. Prime minister and council of the minister- Basic idea about Article 74-75
11. Council of ministers
12. Attorney General
14. Anti defection law and 10th schedule
15. Parliamentary Committees
17. State Government- State Executive
18. Chief minister and council of ministers
19. State Legislature
20. Administration of Union Territories (UT)
21. Emergency Provisions
22. State-Centre and interstate relations (Articles 262 and 263)
23. Inter-State trade and Commerce
24. Panchayati raj and municipalities
25. Constitution Bodies (Election Commission, UPSC, SPSC, JPSC, Finance Commission, National Commission for SCs and ST’s,)
26. Non-Constitutional Bodies (National Human Rights Commission, Central Information Commission, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Bureau of Investigation, State Human Rights Commission, State Information Commission etc)
28. Special Provisions for SC’s, ST’s, Backward Classes, Minorities and Anglo-Indians
29. Current affairs
Syllabus for mains exam
Mains divide into 8 sections and out of four papers are GS paper. GS paper 2 encompasses the section of Political Science and International Relations. Here is the detailed syllabus of GS paper 2:
Paper 2 (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice)
– Indian Constitution – historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure
– Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges about the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein
– Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
– Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions
– Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these
– Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
– Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity
– Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act
– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
– Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
– Health, Education, Human Resources
– Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
– Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to
– Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures
– Issues relating to poverty and hunger
– Role of civil services in a democracy
Key analysis of UPSC every year
* 15- 20% syllabus of UPSC cover by this section.
* Much of questions, statements and topics repeated year after year.
* Almost all polity questions are doable means if you understood the essence of articles you will able to solve 90% questions.
Strategy to read polity for UPSC
– The first and the most important thing, note down the entire syllabus of UPSC prelims and mains and try to understand it’s the essence.
– Then begin your preparation with NCERTs for basic knowledge. After that refer to the reference book.
– Polity is not about memorizing things. It is about to understand the significance of the articles and the constitution. The only mantra to study the polity is Read-Solve-Revise.
– Try to relate the procedure of the centre and states and differentiate it carefully by understanding the practical examples.
– Note down the term or news that discusses in the daily news. It will be beneficial for you.
– Most importantly the committees and their recommendations are important.
Books and sources of polity in UPSC
There are various sources available in the market but without any distraction in it, you have to focus on concise and most recommended material.
Here we are going to give you an idea of some books which recommended by toppers:
– NCERT books for beginners.
– Indian polity of Laxmikant.
– Our Parliament by Subash Kashyap
– The Constitution of India by P.M.Bakshi
– Our Judiciary by Subash Kashyap
– The best newspaper for UPSC current affairs:
– The Indian Express
– The Hindu
– Business Standard
– Best Magazines for UPSC Prelims:
– Economic And Political Weekly
– Down To Earth
TIPS to read polity for UPSC
1. First reading of the book should be for basic understanding. It tries to make you familiar with the contents of the book.
2. Try to co-relate chapters in the second reading.
3. Try to make mind-maps, notes and tables that will help you to remember the facts in prelims and framing answer in mains.
4. Sort out the important topics for each section by analysing previous year questions.
5. Try to co-relate chapters with other subjects and current affairs too.
6. Last but not least, revise, revise and revise.
All the best…